Four Decades of Scientific Explanation Book
Four Decades of Scientific Explanation Book
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EBook Description: University of Pittsburgh Press | 2006 | ISBN: 0822959267, 0816618259 | 234 pages | PDF | 11,3 MB
As Aristotle stated, scientific explanation is based on deductive argument-yet, Wesley C. Salmon points out, not all deductive arguments are qualified explanations. The validity of the explanation must itself be examined. Four Decades of Scientific Explanation provides a comprehensive account of the developments in scientific explanation that transpired in the last four decades of the twentieth century. It continues to stand as the most comprehensive treatment of the writings on the subject during these years. Building on the historic 1948 essay by Carl G. Hempel and Paul Oppenheim, "Studies in the Logic of Explanation, which introduced the deductive-nomological (D-N) model on which most work on scientific explanation was based for the following four decades, Salmon goes beyond this model's inherent basis of describing empirical knowledge to tells us not only what, but also why. Salmon examines the predominant models in chronological order and describes their development, refinement, and criticism or rejection. Four Decades of Scientific Explanation underscores the need for a consensus of approach and ongoing evaluations of methodology in scientific explanation, with the goal of providing a better understanding of natural phenomena.
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Foothold in the Heavens, the second volume in the A History of Human Space Exploration series, focuses upon the 1970s, the decade in which humanity established real, longterm foothold in the heavens with the construction and operation of the first space stations. It marked a transitional phase between the heady, race-to-the-Moon days of the Sixties and efforts to make space travel more economical, more frequent and more 'routine.' Space exploration in the Seventies, although dominated by Soviet achievement, saw the first efforts of mankind to really 'live' and work in space, producing results of direct benefit to humans on Earth. The emphasis changed from the gung-ho, 'strap-it-on-and-go' pioneers of the Sixties to the more practical exploitation of space for science, medicine, and technology. This book focuses on each mission launched between April 1971 and April 1981: from the launch of the world's first space station to the end of operations of Salyut 6, and from the expanded, lengthy exploration of the Moon on Apollo 15 to the first flight of the Shuttle.
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One hundred years ago, scientists would have said that lasers, televisions, and the atomic bomb were beyond the realm of physical possibility. In Physics of the Impossible, the renowned physicist Michio Kaku explores to what extent the technologies and devices of science fiction that are deemed equally impossible today might well become commonplace in the future.
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"Explorations in Mathematical Physics
Have you ever wondered why the language of modern physics centres on geometry? Or how quantum operators and Dirac brackets work? What a convolution really is? What tensors are all about? Or what field theory and lagrangians are, and why gravity is described as curvature?
This book takes you on a tour of the main ideas forming the language of modern mathematical physics. Here you will meet novel approaches to concepts such as determinants and geometry, wave function evolution, statistics, signal processing, and three-dimensional rotations. You'll see how the accelerated frames of special relativity tell us about gravity. On the journey, you'll discover how tensor notation relates to vector calculus, how differential geometry is built on intuitive concepts, and how variational calculus leads to field theory. You will meet quantum measurement theory, along with Green functions and the art of complex integration, and finally general relativity and cosmology.
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Don Koks is a physicist at the Defence Science and Technology Organisation in Adelaide, Australia. His doctorate in quantum cosmology was obtained from the Department of Physics and Mathematical Physics at Adelaide University. Prior work at the University of Auckland specialised in applied accelerator physics, along with pure and applied mathematics.
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