Notes on Operational Amplifiers (Op Amps)
The upper input is usually the inverting input.� Occasionally it is drawn with the non-inverting input on top when it makes the schematic easier to read.� The position of the inputs may vary within the same schematic, so always look closely at the schematic..
Op Amp History (PDF 74p)
A development background of the op amp begins early in the 20th century,starting with certain fundamental beginnings.Of these,there were two key inventions very esrly in the century.
The Monolithic Operational Amplifier A Tutorial Study (PDF 22p)
The integrated circuit operational amplifier (IC op amp) is<br>the most widely used of all linear circuits in production to-<br>day. Over one hundred million of the devices will be sold in<br>1974 alone, and production costs are falling low enough so<br>that op amps find applications in virtually every analog area.
Operational Amplifiers (PDF 33p)
The theory of electrical signal processing requires amplifiers to perform, with
electrical signals, mathematical operations such as addition, subtraction,
multiplication, division, differentiation, integration, etc.
Using Single Supply Operational Amplifiers in Embedded Systems (PDF)
Beyond the primitive transistor, the operational amplifier is the most basic building block for analog applications. Fundamental functions such as gain, load
isolation, signal inversion, level shifting, adding and/or
subtracting signals are easily implemented with this
A Designer's Guide to Instrumentation Amplifiers (3rd Edition)
A Designer's Guide to Instrumentation Amplifiers, written by Charles Kitchin and Lew Counts, gives a comprehensive overview of Instrumentation Amplifier technology and application.
Instrumentation Amplifier Application Note (PDF 35p)
This Application Note describes the Intersil bipolar and MOS
input. Instrumentation Amplifiers, theory of operation, advantages, and typical application circuits.
Power Amplifier Design Guidelines
In this article, I have attempted to cover some of the areas which require their own special consideration, and the references quoted at the end are excellent sources of more detailed information on the items where a reference is given.
Power Amplifiers in Bridge Mode
The maximum positive- and negative-voltage capability of a power amp is limited by the power supply's limits, i.e., its voltage rails. The amplifier can produce so many volts positive and negative at its output. The audio signal essentially swings between the positive and negative supplies within the power amplifier.
Biamplification vs. Bridging Power Amplifiers
When seeking more output from a sound system, it is common to bridge the power amplifier to increase the power available and generate more output from the system.
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